# A-flat phrygian chords

The Solution below shows the A-flat phrygian mode triad chords (i, II, III, iv, vo, VI, vii) on a piano, with mp3 and midi audio.

The Lesson steps then explain the triad chord construction from this mode, and how to name the quality of each chord based on note intervals.

For a quick summary of this topic, and to see the chord quality chart for this mode, have a look at Mode chord.

## Solution - 7 parts

### 1. A-flat phrygian chord i

This step shows the tonic triad chord of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat phrygian chord i is the Ab minor chord, and contains the notes Ab, Cb, and Eb.

This tonic chord's root / starting note is the 1st note (or scale degree) of the A-flat phrygian mode.

The roman numeral for number 1 is 'i' and is used to indicate this is the 1st triad chord in the mode. It is in lower case to denote that the chord is a minor chord.

Chord names for A-flat phrygian chord 1
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionAb minor chord in root positionia
1st inversionAb minor chord in 1st inversionibi6
2nd inversionAb minor chord in 2nd inversionici64

### 2. A-flat phrygian chord II

This step shows the supertonic triad chord of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat phrygian chord II is the Bbb major chord, and contains the notes Bbb, Db, and Fb.

This supertonic chord's root / starting note is the 2nd note (or scale degree) of the A-flat phrygian mode.

The roman numeral for number 2 is 'II' and is used to indicate this is the 2nd triad chord in the mode. It is in upper case to denote that the chord is a major chord.

Chord names for A-flat phrygian chord 2
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionBbb major chord in root positionIIa
1st inversionBbb major chord in 1st inversionIIbII6
2nd inversionBbb major chord in 2nd inversionIIcII64

### 3. A-flat phrygian chord III

This step shows the mediant triad chord of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat phrygian chord III is the Cb major chord, and contains the notes Cb, Eb, and Gb.

This mediant chord's root / starting note is the 3rd note (or scale degree) of the A-flat phrygian mode.

The roman numeral for number 3 is 'III' and is used to indicate this is the 3rd triad chord in the mode. It is in upper case to denote that the chord is a major chord.

Chord names for A-flat phrygian chord 3
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionCb major chord in root positionIIIa
1st inversionCb major chord in 1st inversionIIIbIII6
2nd inversionCb major chord in 2nd inversionIIIcIII64

### 4. A-flat phrygian chord iv

This step shows the subdominant triad chord of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat phrygian chord iv is the Db minor chord, and contains the notes Db, Fb, and Ab.

This subdominant chord's root / starting note is the 4th note (or scale degree) of the A-flat phrygian mode.

The roman numeral for number 4 is 'iv' and is used to indicate this is the 4th triad chord in the mode. It is in lower case to denote that the chord is a minor chord.

Chord names for A-flat phrygian chord 4
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionDb minor chord in root positioniva
1st inversionDb minor chord in 1st inversionivbiv6
2nd inversionDb minor chord in 2nd inversionivciv64

### 5. A-flat phrygian chord vo

This step shows the dominant triad chord of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat phrygian chord vo is the Eb diminished chord, and contains the notes Eb, Gb, and Bbb.

This dominant chord's root / starting note is the 5th note (or scale degree) of the A-flat phrygian mode.

The roman numeral for number 5 is 'v' and is used to indicate this is the 5th triad chord in the mode. Just like a minor chord, the diminished chord is constructed using a minor third interval, so the roman numeral is shown in lower case.

The diminished symbol 'o' is placed after the roman numerals to indicate this is a diminished chord.

Chord names for A-flat phrygian chord 5
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionEb diminished chord in root positionvoa
1st inversionEb diminished chord in 1st inversionvobvo6
2nd inversionEb diminished chord in 2nd inversionvocvo64

### 6. A-flat phrygian chord VI

This step shows the submediant triad chord of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat phrygian chord VI is the Fb major chord, and contains the notes Fb, Ab, and Cb.

This submediant chord's root / starting note is the 6th note (or scale degree) of the A-flat phrygian mode.

The roman numeral for number 6 is 'VI' and is used to indicate this is the 6th triad chord in the mode. It is in upper case to denote that the chord is a major chord.

Chord names for A-flat phrygian chord 6
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionFb major chord in root positionVIa
1st inversionFb major chord in 1st inversionVIbVI6
2nd inversionFb major chord in 2nd inversionVIcVI64

### 7. A-flat phrygian chord vii

This step shows the subtonic triad chord of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat phrygian chord vii is the Gb minor chord, and contains the notes Gb, Bbb, and Db.

This subtonic chord's root / starting note is the 7th note (or scale degree) of the A-flat phrygian mode.

The roman numeral for number 7 is 'vii' and is used to indicate this is the 7th triad chord in the mode. It is in lower case to denote that the chord is a minor chord.

Chord names for A-flat phrygian chord 7
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionGb minor chord in root positionviia
1st inversionGb minor chord in 1st inversionviibvii6
2nd inversionGb minor chord in 2nd inversionviicvii64

## Lesson steps

### 1. Piano key note names

This step shows the white and black note names on a piano keyboard so that the note names are familiar for later steps, and to show that the note names start repeating themselves after 12 notes.

The white keys are named using the alphabetic letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, which is a pattern that repeats up the piano keyboard.

Every white or black key could have a flat(b) or sharp(#) accidental name, depending on how that note is used. In a later step, if sharp or flat notes are used, the exact accidental names will be chosen.

The audio files below play every note shown on the piano above, so middle C (marked with an orange line at the bottom) is the 2nd note heard.

### 2. A-flat phrygian mode notes

This step shows the mode note names that will be used to construct all triad chords that harmonize with those mode notes.

The piano keyboard below contains the notes of the A-flat phrygian mode.

Starting from the 1st mode note, each lesson step below will take each note in turn and construct a triad chord using that note as the root / starting note of that chord.

The triad chord will be built using only the notes of the mode we are interested in.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

Triad chords are built using the 1st, 3rdand 5th notes of the mode, so the first triad below will constructed a chord using notes Ab, Cb and Eb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ab Bbb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab

The second triad below will repeat this, but this time starting on the 2nd note, so its notes will be Bbb, Db and Fb - ie. the 1st, 3rd and 5th positions relative to that 2nd root note.

This pattern is repeated for all 7 notes in the mode, resulting in 7 triad chords.

#### Identifying the chord quality

Although the above method identifies each triads notes from the mode used - it does not identify the complete chord name including its quality.

Should each triad that we build be called major, minor, augmented, or diminished ? Every triad chord must have one of these quality names.

To decide the name the chord quality, each step below will use note intervals to calculate how many half-tones / semitones / piano keys between the root and the 3rd (and 5th).

Taken together, the combination of the 3rd and 5th note intervals will define the complete triad quality name.

The steps below will show how this works for each triad in turn, but in practice it might just be easier to memorize the triad quality table in the Mode chord summary for each mode type.

### 3. 1st triad chord in A-flat phrygian mode

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 1st scale degree of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the A-flat phrygian mode, ordered to show the 1st note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Ab, Cb, and Eb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ab Bbb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Ab and Cb is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at Ab-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Ab and Eb is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Ab-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having minor(m3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is minor.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Ab, onto this quality, giving us the Ab minor chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol i could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Ab minor chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat phrygian mode chord ia.

Instead, i could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Ab minor chord in 1st inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord ib.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Ab minor chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord ic.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols i:

So in this key, i6 refers to the Ab minor chord in 1st inversion, and i64 refers to the Ab minor chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next mode note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Ab, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 4. 2nd triad chord in A-flat phrygian mode

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 2nd scale degree of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the A-flat phrygian mode, ordered to show the 2nd note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Bbb, Db, and Fb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bbb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Bbb and Db is 4 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore major, also called M3 for short. More details of this interval are at Bbb-maj-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Bbb and Fb is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Bbb-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having major(M3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is major.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Bbb, onto this quality, giving us the Bbb major chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol II could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Bbb major chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat phrygian mode chord IIa.

Instead, II could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Bbb major chord in 1st inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord IIb.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Bbb major chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord IIc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols II:

So in this key, II6 refers to the Bbb major chord in 1st inversion, and II64 refers to the Bbb major chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next mode note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Bbb, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 5. 3rd triad chord in A-flat phrygian mode

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 3rd scale degree of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the A-flat phrygian mode, ordered to show the 3rd note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Cb, Eb, and Gb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bbb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Cb and Eb is 4 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore major, also called M3 for short. More details of this interval are at Cb-maj-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Cb and Gb is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Cb-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having major(M3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is major.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Cb, onto this quality, giving us the Cb major chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol III could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Cb major chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat phrygian mode chord IIIa.

Instead, III could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Cb major chord in 1st inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord IIIb.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Cb major chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord IIIc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols III:

So in this key, III6 refers to the Cb major chord in 1st inversion, and III64 refers to the Cb major chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next mode note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Cb, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 6. 4th triad chord in A-flat phrygian mode

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 4th scale degree of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the A-flat phrygian mode, ordered to show the 4th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Db, Fb, and Ab.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Db Eb Fb Gb Ab Bbb Cb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Db and Fb is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at Db-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Db and Ab is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Db-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having minor(m3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is minor.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Db, onto this quality, giving us the Db minor chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol iv could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Db minor chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat phrygian mode chord iva.

Instead, iv could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Db minor chord in 1st inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord ivb.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Db minor chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord ivc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols iv:

So in this key, iv6 refers to the Db minor chord in 1st inversion, and iv64 refers to the Db minor chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next mode note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Db, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 7. 5th triad chord in A-flat phrygian mode

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 5th scale degree of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the A-flat phrygian mode, ordered to show the 5th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Eb, Gb, and Bbb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Eb Fb Gb Ab Bbb Cb Db

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Eb and Gb is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at Eb-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Eb and Bbb is 6 half-tones, and the note interval name is diminished (d5). More details of this interval are at Eb-dim-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having minor(m3) and diminished(d5) note intervals is diminished.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Eb, onto this quality, giving us the Eb diminished chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol vo could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Eb diminished chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat phrygian mode chord voa.

Instead, vo could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Eb diminished chord in 1st inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord vob.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Eb diminished chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord voc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols vo:

So in this key, vo6 refers to the Eb diminished chord in 1st inversion, and vo64 refers to the Eb diminished chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next mode note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Eb, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 8. 6th triad chord in A-flat phrygian mode

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 6th scale degree of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the A-flat phrygian mode, ordered to show the 6th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Fb, Ab, and Cb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fb Gb Ab Bbb Cb Db Eb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Fb and Ab is 4 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore major, also called M3 for short. More details of this interval are at Fb-maj-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Fb and Cb is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Fb-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having major(M3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is major.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Fb, onto this quality, giving us the Fb major chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol VI could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Fb major chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat phrygian mode chord VIa.

Instead, VI could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Fb major chord in 1st inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord VIb.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Fb major chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord VIc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols VI:

So in this key, VI6 refers to the Fb major chord in 1st inversion, and VI64 refers to the Fb major chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next mode note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Fb, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 9. 7th triad chord in A-flat phrygian mode

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 7th scale degree of the A-flat phrygian mode.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the A-flat phrygian mode, ordered to show the 7th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Gb, Bbb, and Db.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Gb Ab Bbb Cb Db Eb Fb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Gb and Bbb is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at Gb-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Gb and Db is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Gb-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having minor(m3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is minor.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Gb, onto this quality, giving us the Gb minor chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol vii could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Gb minor chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat phrygian mode chord viia.

Instead, vii could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Gb minor chord in 1st inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord viib.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Gb minor chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat phrygian mode chord viic.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols vii:

So in this key, vii6 refers to the Gb minor chord in 1st inversion, and vii64 refers to the Gb minor chord in 2nd inversion.

This completes the set of all triad chords that harmonize with the A-flat phrygian mode.