# C minor 7th chords

The Solution below shows the C minor scale 7th chords, (i7, iiø7, III7, iv7, v7, VI7, VII7) on a piano, with mp3 and midi audio.

The Lesson steps then explain the 7th chord construction from this scale, and how to name the quality of each chord based on note intervals.

For a quick summary of this topic, and to see the chord quality chart for this scale, have a look at Scale chord.

## Solution - 7 parts

### 1. C minor chord i7

This step shows the tonic 7th chord of the C minor scale.

The C minor chord i7 is the C min 7 chord, and contains the notes C, Eb, G, and Bb.

This tonic 7th chords root / starting note is the 1st note (or scale degree) of the C natural minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 1 is 'i', and is used to indicate this is the 1st chord in the scale. It is in lower case to denote that the chord is a minor chord.

Chord names for C minor chord 1
Root positionC minor 7th chord in root positioniai7
1st inversionC minor 7th chord in 1st inversionibi65
2nd inversionC minor 7th chord in 2nd inversionici43
3rd inversionC minor 7th chord in 3rd inversionidi2

### 2. C minor chord iiø7

This step shows the supertonic 7th chord of the C minor scale.

The C minor chord iiø7 is the D half-dim7 chord, and contains the notes D, F, Ab, and C.

This supertonic 7th chords root / starting note is the 2nd note (or scale degree) of the C natural minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 2 is 'ii', and is used to indicate this is the 2nd chord in the scale. Just like a minor chord, the half-diminished 7th chord is constructed using a minor third interval, so the roman numeral is shown in lower case.

The half-diminished symbol 'ø' is placed after the roman numerals to indicate this is a half-diminished 7th chord.

Chord names for C minor chord 2
Root positionD half-diminished 7th chord in root positioniiøaiiø7
1st inversionD half-diminished 7th chord in 1st inversioniiøbiiø65
2nd inversionD half-diminished 7th chord in 2nd inversioniiøciiø43
3rd inversionD half-diminished 7th chord in 3rd inversioniiødiiø2

### 3. C minor chord III7

This step shows the mediant 7th chord of the C minor scale.

The C minor chord III7 is the Eb maj 7 chord, and contains the notes Eb, G, Bb, and D.

This mediant 7th chords root / starting note is the 3rd note (or scale degree) of the C natural minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 3 is 'III', and is used to indicate this is the 3rd chord in the scale. It is in upper case to denote that the chord is a major chord.

Chord names for C minor chord 3
Root positionEb major 7th chord in root positionIIIaIII7
1st inversionEb major 7th chord in 1st inversionIIIbIII65
2nd inversionEb major 7th chord in 2nd inversionIIIcIII43
3rd inversionEb major 7th chord in 3rd inversionIIIdIII2

### 4. C minor chord iv7

This step shows the subdominant 7th chord of the C minor scale.

The C minor chord iv7 is the F min 7 chord, and contains the notes F, Ab, C, and Eb.

This subdominant 7th chords root / starting note is the 4th note (or scale degree) of the C natural minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 4 is 'iv', and is used to indicate this is the 4th chord in the scale. It is in lower case to denote that the chord is a minor chord.

Chord names for C minor chord 4
Root positionF minor 7th chord in root positionivaiv7
1st inversionF minor 7th chord in 1st inversionivbiv65
2nd inversionF minor 7th chord in 2nd inversionivciv43
3rd inversionF minor 7th chord in 3rd inversionivdiv2

### 5. C minor chord v7

This step shows the dominant 7th chord of the C minor scale.

The C minor chord v7 is the G min 7 chord, and contains the notes G, Bb, D, and F.

This dominant 7th chords root / starting note is the 5th note (or scale degree) of the C natural minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 5 is 'v', and is used to indicate this is the 5th chord in the scale. It is in lower case to denote that the chord is a minor chord.

Chord names for C minor chord 5
Root positionG minor 7th chord in root positionvav7
1st inversionG minor 7th chord in 1st inversionvbv65
2nd inversionG minor 7th chord in 2nd inversionvcv43
3rd inversionG minor 7th chord in 3rd inversionvdv2

### 6. C minor chord VI7

This step shows the submediant 7th chord of the C minor scale.

The C minor chord VI7 is the Ab maj 7 chord, and contains the notes Ab, C, Eb, and G.

This submediant 7th chords root / starting note is the 6th note (or scale degree) of the C natural minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 6 is 'VI', and is used to indicate this is the 6th chord in the scale. It is in upper case to denote that the chord is a major chord.

Chord names for C minor chord 6
Root positionAb major 7th chord in root positionVIaVI7
1st inversionAb major 7th chord in 1st inversionVIbVI65
2nd inversionAb major 7th chord in 2nd inversionVIcVI43
3rd inversionAb major 7th chord in 3rd inversionVIdVI2

### 7. C minor chord VII7

This step shows the subtonic 7th chord of the C minor scale.

The C minor chord VII7 is the Bb dom 7 chord, and contains the notes Bb, D, F, and Ab.

This subtonic 7th chords root / starting note is the 7th note (or scale degree) of the C natural minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 7 is 'VII', and is used to indicate this is the 7th chord in the scale. Just like a major chord, the dominant 7th chord is constructed using a major third interval,so the roman numeral is shown in upper case.

Chord names for C minor chord 7
Root positionBb dominant 7th chord in root positionVIIaVII7
1st inversionBb dominant 7th chord in 1st inversionVIIbVII65
2nd inversionBb dominant 7th chord in 2nd inversionVIIcVII43
3rd inversionBb dominant 7th chord in 3rd inversionVIIdVII2

## Lesson steps

### 1. Piano key note names

This step shows the white and black note names on a piano keyboard so that the note names are familiar for later steps, and to show that the note names start repeating themselves after 12 notes.

The white keys are named using the alphabetic letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, which is a pattern that repeats up the piano keyboard.

Every white or black key could have a flat(b) or sharp(#) accidental name, depending on how that note is used. In a later step, if sharp or flat notes are used, the exact accidental names will be chosen.

The audio files below play every note shown on the piano above, so middle C (marked with an orange line at the bottom) is the 2nd note heard.

### 2. C minor scale notes

This step shows the scale note names that will be used to construct all 7th chords that harmonize with those scale notes.

The piano keyboard below contains the notes of the C natural minor scale.

Starting from the 1st scale note, each lesson step below will take each note in turn and construct a 7th chord using that note as the root / starting note of that chord.

The 7th chord will be built using only the notes of the scale we are interested in.

#### Identifying the 4 notes in the chord

7th chords are built using the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th notes of a scale, so the first 7th chord below will constructed a chord using notes C, Eb, G and Bb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C D Eb F G Ab Bb C

The second 7th chord below will repeat this, but this time starting on the 2nd note, so its notes will be D, F, Ab and C - ie. the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th positions relative to that 2nd root note.

This pattern is repeated for all 7 notes in the scale, resulting in 7 seventh chords.

#### Identifying the chord quality

Although the above method identifies each 7th chord notes from the scale used, it does not identify the complete chord name including its quality.

Should each 7th chord that we build be called diminished, half-diminished, minorminor-major, dominant, major, augmented, or augmented-major ?

Every 7th chord must have one of these quality names.

To decide the name the chord quality, each step below will use note intervals to calculate how many half-tones / semitones / piano keys between the root and the 3rd, 5th and 7th notes.).

Taken together, the combination of the 3rd, 5th and 7th note intervals will define the complete 7th chord quality name.

The steps below will show how this works for each 7th chord in turn, but in practice it might just be easier to memorize the triad quality table in the Scale chord summary for each scale type.

### 3. 1st 7th chord in C minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a 7th chord whose root note is the 1st scale degree of the C natural minor scale.

#### Identifying the 4 notes in the chord

The table below shows the C natural minor scale, ordered to show the 1st note as the first column in the table.

To identify the 7th chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th columns / scale degrees, which are notes C, Eb, G, and Bb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 C D Eb F G Ab Bb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the 7th chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between C and Eb is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at C-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between C and G is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at C-perf-5th.

Again the 7th note / scale degree, the distance between C and Bb is 10 half-tones, and the note interval name is minor (m7). More details of this interval are at C-min-7th.

Finally, we have the name of the three note intervals of this 7th chord, and can now lookup the name of the 7th chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Seventh chord table, the name of the 7th chord quality having minor(m3), perfect(P5) and minor(m7) note intervals is minor 7th.

And so the complete 7th chord Name prefixes the root note, C, onto this quality, giving us the C min 7 chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol i could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is C minor 7th chord in root position (ie not inverted) - C minor scale chord ia.

Instead, i could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is C minor 7th chord in 1st inversion - C minor scale chord ib.

Letter c could be used to indicate that it is C minor 7th chord in 2nd inversion - C minor scale chord ic.

Finally, letter d could be used to indicate that it is C minor 7th chord in 3rd inversion - C minor scale chord id.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the a-d symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate chord positions after i:

So in this key, i7 refers to the C minor 7th chord in root position.

For 7th chord inversions, i65 refers to the C minor 7th chord in 1st inversion, i43 refers to the C minor 7th chord in 2nd inversion, and i2 refers to the C minor 7th chord in 3rd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the 7th chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, C, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 4. 2nd 7th chord in C minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a 7th chord whose root note is the 2nd scale degree of the C natural minor scale.

#### Identifying the 4 notes in the chord

The table below shows the C natural minor scale, ordered to show the 2nd note as the first column in the table.

To identify the 7th chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th columns / scale degrees, which are notes D, F, Ab, and C.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D Eb F G Ab Bb C

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the 7th chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between D and F is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at D-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between D and Ab is 6 half-tones, and the note interval name is diminished (d5). More details of this interval are at D-dim-5th.

Again the 7th note / scale degree, the distance between D and C is 10 half-tones, and the note interval name is minor (m7). More details of this interval are at D-min-7th.

Finally, we have the name of the three note intervals of this 7th chord, and can now lookup the name of the 7th chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Seventh chord table, the name of the 7th chord quality having minor(m3), diminished(d5) and minor(m7) note intervals is half-diminished 7th.

And so the complete 7th chord Name prefixes the root note, D, onto this quality, giving us the D half-dim7 chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol iiø could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is D half-diminished 7th chord in root position (ie not inverted) - C minor scale chord iiøa.

Instead, iiø could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is D half-diminished 7th chord in 1st inversion - C minor scale chord iiøb.

Letter c could be used to indicate that it is D half-diminished 7th chord in 2nd inversion - C minor scale chord iiøc.

Finally, letter d could be used to indicate that it is D half-diminished 7th chord in 3rd inversion - C minor scale chord iiød.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the a-d symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate chord positions after iiø:

So in this key, iiø7 refers to the D half-diminished 7th chord in root position.

For 7th chord inversions, iiø65 refers to the D half-diminished 7th chord in 1st inversion, iiø43 refers to the D half-diminished 7th chord in 2nd inversion, and iiø2 refers to the D half-diminished 7th chord in 3rd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the 7th chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, D, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 5. 3rd 7th chord in C minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a 7th chord whose root note is the 3rd scale degree of the C natural minor scale.

#### Identifying the 4 notes in the chord

The table below shows the C natural minor scale, ordered to show the 3rd note as the first column in the table.

To identify the 7th chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Eb, G, Bb, and D.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Eb F G Ab Bb C D

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the 7th chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Eb and G is 4 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore major, also called M3 for short. More details of this interval are at Eb-maj-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Eb and Bb is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Eb-perf-5th.

Again the 7th note / scale degree, the distance between Eb and D is 11 half-tones, and the note interval name is major (M7). More details of this interval are at Eb-maj-7th.

Finally, we have the name of the three note intervals of this 7th chord, and can now lookup the name of the 7th chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Seventh chord table, the name of the 7th chord quality having major(M3), perfect(P5) and major(M7) note intervals is major 7th.

And so the complete 7th chord Name prefixes the root note, Eb, onto this quality, giving us the Eb maj 7 chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol III could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Eb major 7th chord in root position (ie not inverted) - C minor scale chord IIIa.

Instead, III could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Eb major 7th chord in 1st inversion - C minor scale chord IIIb.

Letter c could be used to indicate that it is Eb major 7th chord in 2nd inversion - C minor scale chord IIIc.

Finally, letter d could be used to indicate that it is Eb major 7th chord in 3rd inversion - C minor scale chord IIId.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the a-d symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate chord positions after III:

So in this key, III7 refers to the Eb major 7th chord in root position.

For 7th chord inversions, III65 refers to the Eb major 7th chord in 1st inversion, III43 refers to the Eb major 7th chord in 2nd inversion, and III2 refers to the Eb major 7th chord in 3rd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the 7th chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Eb, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 6. 4th 7th chord in C minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a 7th chord whose root note is the 4th scale degree of the C natural minor scale.

#### Identifying the 4 notes in the chord

The table below shows the C natural minor scale, ordered to show the 4th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the 7th chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th columns / scale degrees, which are notes F, Ab, C, and Eb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 F G Ab Bb C D Eb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the 7th chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between F and Ab is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at F-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between F and C is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at F-perf-5th.

Again the 7th note / scale degree, the distance between F and Eb is 10 half-tones, and the note interval name is minor (m7). More details of this interval are at F-min-7th.

Finally, we have the name of the three note intervals of this 7th chord, and can now lookup the name of the 7th chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Seventh chord table, the name of the 7th chord quality having minor(m3), perfect(P5) and minor(m7) note intervals is minor 7th.

And so the complete 7th chord Name prefixes the root note, F, onto this quality, giving us the F min 7 chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol iv could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is F minor 7th chord in root position (ie not inverted) - C minor scale chord iva.

Instead, iv could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is F minor 7th chord in 1st inversion - C minor scale chord ivb.

Letter c could be used to indicate that it is F minor 7th chord in 2nd inversion - C minor scale chord ivc.

Finally, letter d could be used to indicate that it is F minor 7th chord in 3rd inversion - C minor scale chord ivd.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the a-d symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate chord positions after iv:

So in this key, iv7 refers to the F minor 7th chord in root position.

For 7th chord inversions, iv65 refers to the F minor 7th chord in 1st inversion, iv43 refers to the F minor 7th chord in 2nd inversion, and iv2 refers to the F minor 7th chord in 3rd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the 7th chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, F, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 7. 5th 7th chord in C minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a 7th chord whose root note is the 5th scale degree of the C natural minor scale.

#### Identifying the 4 notes in the chord

The table below shows the C natural minor scale, ordered to show the 5th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the 7th chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th columns / scale degrees, which are notes G, Bb, D, and F.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G Ab Bb C D Eb F

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the 7th chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between G and Bb is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at G-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between G and D is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at G-perf-5th.

Again the 7th note / scale degree, the distance between G and F is 10 half-tones, and the note interval name is minor (m7). More details of this interval are at G-min-7th.

Finally, we have the name of the three note intervals of this 7th chord, and can now lookup the name of the 7th chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Seventh chord table, the name of the 7th chord quality having minor(m3), perfect(P5) and minor(m7) note intervals is minor 7th.

And so the complete 7th chord Name prefixes the root note, G, onto this quality, giving us the G min 7 chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol v could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is G minor 7th chord in root position (ie not inverted) - C minor scale chord va.

Instead, v could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is G minor 7th chord in 1st inversion - C minor scale chord vb.

Letter c could be used to indicate that it is G minor 7th chord in 2nd inversion - C minor scale chord vc.

Finally, letter d could be used to indicate that it is G minor 7th chord in 3rd inversion - C minor scale chord vd.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the a-d symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate chord positions after v:

So in this key, v7 refers to the G minor 7th chord in root position.

For 7th chord inversions, v65 refers to the G minor 7th chord in 1st inversion, v43 refers to the G minor 7th chord in 2nd inversion, and v2 refers to the G minor 7th chord in 3rd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the 7th chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, G, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 8. 6th 7th chord in C minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a 7th chord whose root note is the 6th scale degree of the C natural minor scale.

#### Identifying the 4 notes in the chord

The table below shows the C natural minor scale, ordered to show the 6th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the 7th chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Ab, C, Eb, and G.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ab Bb C D Eb F G

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the 7th chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Ab and C is 4 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore major, also called M3 for short. More details of this interval are at Ab-maj-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Ab and Eb is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Ab-perf-5th.

Again the 7th note / scale degree, the distance between Ab and G is 11 half-tones, and the note interval name is major (M7). More details of this interval are at Ab-maj-7th.

Finally, we have the name of the three note intervals of this 7th chord, and can now lookup the name of the 7th chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Seventh chord table, the name of the 7th chord quality having major(M3), perfect(P5) and major(M7) note intervals is major 7th.

And so the complete 7th chord Name prefixes the root note, Ab, onto this quality, giving us the Ab maj 7 chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol VI could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Ab major 7th chord in root position (ie not inverted) - C minor scale chord VIa.

Instead, VI could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Ab major 7th chord in 1st inversion - C minor scale chord VIb.

Letter c could be used to indicate that it is Ab major 7th chord in 2nd inversion - C minor scale chord VIc.

Finally, letter d could be used to indicate that it is Ab major 7th chord in 3rd inversion - C minor scale chord VId.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the a-d symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate chord positions after VI:

So in this key, VI7 refers to the Ab major 7th chord in root position.

For 7th chord inversions, VI65 refers to the Ab major 7th chord in 1st inversion, VI43 refers to the Ab major 7th chord in 2nd inversion, and VI2 refers to the Ab major 7th chord in 3rd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the 7th chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Ab, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 9. 7th 7th chord in C minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a 7th chord whose root note is the 7th scale degree of the C natural minor scale.

#### Identifying the 4 notes in the chord

The table below shows the C natural minor scale, ordered to show the 7th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the 7th chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Bb, D, F, and Ab.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bb C D Eb F G Ab

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the 7th chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Bb and D is 4 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore major, also called M3 for short. More details of this interval are at Bb-maj-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Bb and F is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Bb-perf-5th.

Again the 7th note / scale degree, the distance between Bb and Ab is 10 half-tones, and the note interval name is minor (m7). More details of this interval are at Bb-min-7th.

Finally, we have the name of the three note intervals of this 7th chord, and can now lookup the name of the 7th chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Seventh chord table, the name of the 7th chord quality having major(M3), perfect(P5) and minor(m7) note intervals is dominant 7th.

And so the complete 7th chord Name prefixes the root note, Bb, onto this quality, giving us the Bb dom 7 chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol VII could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Bb dominant 7th chord in root position (ie not inverted) - C minor scale chord VIIa.

Instead, VII could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Bb dominant 7th chord in 1st inversion - C minor scale chord VIIb.

Letter c could be used to indicate that it is Bb dominant 7th chord in 2nd inversion - C minor scale chord VIIc.

Finally, letter d could be used to indicate that it is Bb dominant 7th chord in 3rd inversion - C minor scale chord VIId.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the a-d symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate chord positions after VII:

So in this key, VII7 refers to the Bb dominant 7th chord in root position.

For 7th chord inversions, VII65 refers to the Bb dominant 7th chord in 1st inversion, VII43 refers to the Bb dominant 7th chord in 2nd inversion, and VII2 refers to the Bb dominant 7th chord in 3rd inversion.

This completes the set of all 7th chords that harmonize with the C natural minor scale.