# A-flat harmonic minor chords

The Solution below shows the A-flat harmonic minor scale triad chords (i, iio, III+, iv, V, VI, viio) on a piano, with mp3 and midi audio.

The Lesson steps then explain the triad chord construction from this scale, and how to name the quality of each chord based on note intervals.

For a quick summary of this topic, and to see the chord quality chart for this scale, have a look at Scale chord.

 Key C C# Db D D# Eb E E# Fb F F# Gb G G# [Ab] A A# Bb B B# Cb

## Solution - 7 parts

### 1. A-flat harmonic minor chord i

This step shows the tonic triad chord of the A-flat harmonic minor scale.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat harmonic minor chord i is the Ab minor chord, and contains the notes Ab, Cb, and Eb.

This tonic chord's root / starting note is the 1st note (or scale degree) of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 1 is 'i' and is used to indicate this is the 1st triad chord in the scale. It is in lower case to denote that the chord is a minor chord.

Chord names for A-flat harmonic minor chord 1
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionAb minor chord in root positionia
1st inversionAb minor chord in 1st inversionibi6
2nd inversionAb minor chord in 2nd inversionici64

### 2. A-flat harmonic minor chord iio

This step shows the supertonic triad chord of the A-flat harmonic minor scale.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat harmonic minor chord iio is the Bb diminished chord, and contains the notes Bb, Db, and Fb.

This supertonic chord's root / starting note is the 2nd note (or scale degree) of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 2 is 'ii' and is used to indicate this is the 2nd triad chord in the scale. Just like a minor chord, the diminished chord is constructed using a minor third interval, so the roman numeral is shown in lower case.

The diminished symbol 'o' is placed after the roman numerals to indicate this is a diminished chord.

Chord names for A-flat harmonic minor chord 2
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionBb diminished chord in root positioniioa
1st inversionBb diminished chord in 1st inversioniiobiio6
2nd inversionBb diminished chord in 2nd inversioniiociio64

### 3. A-flat harmonic minor chord III+

This step shows the mediant triad chord of the A-flat harmonic minor scale.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat harmonic minor chord III+ is the Cb augmented chord, and contains the notes Cb, Eb, and G.

This mediant chord's root / starting note is the 3rd note (or scale degree) of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 3 is 'III' and is used to indicate this is the 3rd triad chord in the scale. Just like a major chord, the augmented chord is constructed using a major third interval, so the roman numeral is shown in upper case.

Chord names for A-flat harmonic minor chord 3
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionCb augmented chord in root positionIII+a
1st inversionCb augmented chord in 1st inversionIII+bIII+6
2nd inversionCb augmented chord in 2nd inversionIII+cIII+64

### 4. A-flat harmonic minor chord iv

This step shows the subdominant triad chord of the A-flat harmonic minor scale.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat harmonic minor chord iv is the Db minor chord, and contains the notes Db, Fb, and Ab.

This subdominant chord's root / starting note is the 4th note (or scale degree) of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 4 is 'iv' and is used to indicate this is the 4th triad chord in the scale. It is in lower case to denote that the chord is a minor chord.

Chord names for A-flat harmonic minor chord 4
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionDb minor chord in root positioniva
1st inversionDb minor chord in 1st inversionivbiv6
2nd inversionDb minor chord in 2nd inversionivciv64

### 5. A-flat harmonic minor chord V

This step shows the dominant triad chord of the A-flat harmonic minor scale.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat harmonic minor chord V is the Eb major chord, and contains the notes Eb, G, and Bb.

This dominant chord's root / starting note is the 5th note (or scale degree) of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 5 is 'V' and is used to indicate this is the 5th triad chord in the scale. It is in upper case to denote that the chord is a major chord.

Chord names for A-flat harmonic minor chord 5
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionEb major chord in root positionVa
1st inversionEb major chord in 1st inversionVbV6
2nd inversionEb major chord in 2nd inversionVcV64

### 6. A-flat harmonic minor chord VI

This step shows the submediant triad chord of the A-flat harmonic minor scale.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat harmonic minor chord VI is the Fb major chord, and contains the notes Fb, Ab, and Cb.

This submediant chord's root / starting note is the 6th note (or scale degree) of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 6 is 'VI' and is used to indicate this is the 6th triad chord in the scale. It is in upper case to denote that the chord is a major chord.

Chord names for A-flat harmonic minor chord 6
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionFb major chord in root positionVIa
1st inversionFb major chord in 1st inversionVIbVI6
2nd inversionFb major chord in 2nd inversionVIcVI64

### 7. A-flat harmonic minor chord viio

This step shows the subtonic triad chord of the A-flat harmonic minor scale.

#### Chord identification

The A-flat harmonic minor chord viio is the G diminished chord, and contains the notes G, Bb, and Db.

This subtonic chord's root / starting note is the 7th note (or scale degree) of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

The roman numeral for number 7 is 'vii' and is used to indicate this is the 7th triad chord in the scale. Just like a minor chord, the diminished chord is constructed using a minor third interval, so the roman numeral is shown in lower case.

The diminished symbol 'o' is placed after the roman numerals to indicate this is a diminished chord.

Chord names for A-flat harmonic minor chord 7
Chord positionLinka/b/c notationFigured bass notation
Root positionG diminished chord in root positionviioa
1st inversionG diminished chord in 1st inversionviiobviio6
2nd inversionG diminished chord in 2nd inversionviiocviio64

## Lesson steps

### 1. Piano key note names

This step shows the white and black note names on a piano keyboard so that the note names are familiar for later steps, and to show that the note names start repeating themselves after 12 notes.

The white keys are named using the alphabetic letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, which is a pattern that repeats up the piano keyboard.

Every white or black key could have a flat(b) or sharp(#) accidental name, depending on how that note is used. In a later step, if sharp or flat notes are used, the exact accidental names will be chosen.

The audio files below play every note shown on the piano above, so middle C (marked with an orange line at the bottom) is the 2nd note heard.

### 2. A-flat harmonic minor scale notes

This step shows the scale note names that will be used to construct all triad chords that harmonize with those scale notes.

The piano keyboard below contains the notes of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

Starting from the 1st scale note, each lesson step below will take each note in turn and construct a triad chord using that note as the root / starting note of that chord.

The triad chord will be built using only the notes of the scale we are interested in.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

Triad chords are built using the 1st, 3rdand 5th notes of the scale, so the first triad below will constructed a chord using notes Ab, Cb and Eb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ab Bb Cb Db Eb Fb G Ab

The second triad below will repeat this, but this time starting on the 2nd note, so its notes will be Bb, Db and Fb - ie. the 1st, 3rd and 5th positions relative to that 2nd root note.

This pattern is repeated for all 7 notes in the scale, resulting in 7 triad chords.

#### Identifying the chord quality

Although the above method identifies each triads notes from the scale used - it does not identify the complete chord name including its quality.

Should each triad that we build be called major, minor, augmented, or diminished ? Every triad chord must have one of these quality names.

To decide the name the chord quality, each step below will use note intervals to calculate how many half-tones / semitones / piano keys between the root and the 3rd (and 5th).

Taken together, the combination of the 3rd and 5th note intervals will define the complete triad quality name.

The steps below will show how this works for each triad in turn, but in practice it might just be easier to memorize the triad quality table in the Scale chord summary for each scale type.

### 3. 1st triad chord in A-flat harmonic minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 1st scale degree of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the Ab harmonic minor scale, ordered to show the 1st note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Ab, Cb, and Eb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ab Bb Cb Db Eb Fb G

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Ab and Cb is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at Ab-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Ab and Eb is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Ab-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having minor(m3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is minor.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Ab, onto this quality, giving us the Ab minor chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol i could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Ab minor chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord ia.

Instead, i could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Ab minor chord in 1st inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord ib.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Ab minor chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord ic.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols i:

So in this key, i6 refers to the Ab minor chord in 1st inversion, and i64 refers to the Ab minor chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Ab, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 4. 2nd triad chord in A-flat harmonic minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 2nd scale degree of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the Ab harmonic minor scale, ordered to show the 2nd note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Bb, Db, and Fb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bb Cb Db Eb Fb G Ab

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Bb and Db is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at Bb-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Bb and Fb is 6 half-tones, and the note interval name is diminished (d5). More details of this interval are at Bb-dim-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having minor(m3) and diminished(d5) note intervals is diminished.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Bb, onto this quality, giving us the Bb diminished chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol iio could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Bb diminished chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord iioa.

Instead, iio could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Bb diminished chord in 1st inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord iiob.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Bb diminished chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord iioc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols iio:

So in this key, iio6 refers to the Bb diminished chord in 1st inversion, and iio64 refers to the Bb diminished chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Bb, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 5. 3rd triad chord in A-flat harmonic minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 3rd scale degree of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the Ab harmonic minor scale, ordered to show the 3rd note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Cb, Eb, and G.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cb Db Eb Fb G Ab Bb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Cb and Eb is 4 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore major, also called M3 for short. More details of this interval are at Cb-maj-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Cb and G is 8 half-tones, and the note interval name is augmented (A5). More details of this interval are at Cb-aug-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having major(M3) and augmented(A5) note intervals is augmented.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Cb, onto this quality, giving us the Cb augmented chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol III+ could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Cb augmented chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord III+a.

Instead, III+ could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Cb augmented chord in 1st inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord III+b.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Cb augmented chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord III+c.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols III+:

So in this key, III+6 refers to the Cb augmented chord in 1st inversion, and III+64 refers to the Cb augmented chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Cb, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 6. 4th triad chord in A-flat harmonic minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 4th scale degree of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the Ab harmonic minor scale, ordered to show the 4th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Db, Fb, and Ab.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Db Eb Fb G Ab Bb Cb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Db and Fb is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at Db-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Db and Ab is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Db-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having minor(m3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is minor.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Db, onto this quality, giving us the Db minor chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol iv could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Db minor chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord iva.

Instead, iv could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Db minor chord in 1st inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord ivb.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Db minor chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord ivc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols iv:

So in this key, iv6 refers to the Db minor chord in 1st inversion, and iv64 refers to the Db minor chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Db, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 7. 5th triad chord in A-flat harmonic minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 5th scale degree of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the Ab harmonic minor scale, ordered to show the 5th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Eb, G, and Bb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Eb Fb G Ab Bb Cb Db

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Eb and G is 4 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore major, also called M3 for short. More details of this interval are at Eb-maj-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Eb and Bb is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Eb-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having major(M3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is major.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Eb, onto this quality, giving us the Eb major chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol V could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Eb major chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord Va.

Instead, V could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Eb major chord in 1st inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord Vb.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Eb major chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord Vc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols V:

So in this key, V6 refers to the Eb major chord in 1st inversion, and V64 refers to the Eb major chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Eb, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 8. 6th triad chord in A-flat harmonic minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 6th scale degree of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the Ab harmonic minor scale, ordered to show the 6th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes Fb, Ab, and Cb.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fb G Ab Bb Cb Db Eb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between Fb and Ab is 4 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore major, also called M3 for short. More details of this interval are at Fb-maj-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between Fb and Cb is 7 half-tones, and the note interval name is perfect (P5). More details of this interval are at Fb-perf-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having major(M3) and perfect(P5) note intervals is major.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, Fb, onto this quality, giving us the Fb major chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol VI could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is Fb major chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord VIa.

Instead, VI could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is Fb major chord in 1st inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord VIb.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is Fb major chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord VIc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols VI:

So in this key, VI6 refers to the Fb major chord in 1st inversion, and VI64 refers to the Fb major chord in 2nd inversion.

#### The next scale chord

The next step will need to calculate the triad chord whose root / starting note is next scale note.

To do this, the first column we used in this step, Fb, will be moved to the final column of the table.

### 9. 7th triad chord in A-flat harmonic minor scale

This step shows how to identify the notes and the name of a triad chord whose root note is the 7th scale degree of the Ab harmonic minor scale.

#### Identifying the 3 notes in the chord

The table below shows the Ab harmonic minor scale, ordered to show the 7th note as the first column in the table.

To identify the triad chord note names, use the 1st, 3rd, and 5th columns / scale degrees, which are notes G, Bb, and Db.

 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G Ab Bb Cb Db Eb Fb

#### Identifying the chord quality

To identify the triad chord quality that has these notes, begin by counting the number of half-tones / semitones between the root and each of the notes.

For the 3rd Interval (note 2 on the diagram) the distance between G and Bb is 3 half-tones.

Now look at the complete Note interval table, and identify the note interval that has a distance of 3 half-tones (first column), and with an interval no. of 3 (last column).

The note interval name for the 3rd note / scale degree is therefore minor, also called m3 for short. More details of this interval are at G-min-3rd.

Repeating this for the 5th note / scale degree, the distance between G and Db is 6 half-tones, and the note interval name is diminished (d5). More details of this interval are at G-dim-5th.

Finally, we have the name of the two note intervals of this triad, and can now lookup the name of the triad chord quality having these intervals.

Looking at the Triad chord table, the name of the triad chord quality having minor(m3) and diminished(d5) note intervals is diminished.

And so the complete triad chord name prefixes the root note, G, onto this quality, giving us the G diminished chord.

#### Scale chord names using a,b and c notation

The chord symbol viio could be followed by the letter a to indicate that it is G diminished chord in root position (ie not inverted) - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord viioa.

Instead, viio could be followed by the letter b to indicate that it is G diminished chord in 1st inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord viiob.

Finally, letter c could be used to indicate that it is G diminished chord in 2nd inversion - A-flat harmonic minor scale chord viioc.

#### Scale chord names using figured bass notation

In place of the b or c symbols above, figured bass symbols could be used to indicate inversions after the chord number symbols viio:

So in this key, viio6 refers to the G diminished chord in 1st inversion, and viio64 refers to the G diminished chord in 2nd inversion.

This completes the set of all triad chords that harmonize with the Ab harmonic minor scale.